ITGS HL

ITGS Textbook: Chapter 12 (Health) Summary/Review/Study Guide

Medical Experts System

How it works?

The EMR or Electronic medical Records store patient’s data in a computerized data base. The medicinal records are stored in a centralized database which is housed and maintained by a hospital or healthcare provider. This allows medical staff to view patient’s details including to generate billing information for the patient and insurers.

Issues

Privacy and Anonymity could be an issue for the stakeholder of the patients. Since the data is located online an in a database that are accessed by many, a careful balance between accessibility and privacy must be achieved. It means that the medical data must be accessible in an emergency, however when not in an emergency be safe and secure from being accessed by unauthorized users.

Evaluate advantage and disadvatage (to what extent the effect..)

The Electronic Medical Records or EMR gives a huge advantage for both the patient and for the hospital. For the hospital, this allows increased efficency and reduced cost compared to paper based system. Since it is digital it also consumes minimal physical space therefore allowing the hospital to make use of more room available. Other than that, the documentation can be accessed by multiple people simulateneosly and even be transfered quickly from a location to a location which is time consuming in a deadly situation. The most important is that by making the paper documents digital, it makes it much harder to lose than paper.

The EMR however has some disadvantages toward the hospital stakeholder. The hospital needs to spend money to implement good security practices since hackers and other unauthorized users might target.

E-prescription

How it works?

The EMR systems are often linked to the e-prescriptions systems that will automatically generate presecriptions and send them to pharmacies.

Issues

Privacy and Anonymity could be an issue for the stakeholder of the patients. Since the data is located in a database, it can be hacked or accessed by other people. Another issue would be reliability and integrity where stakeholders depend on this app to automatically do its job without issue, however if the system sends wrong information in the pharmacy it can be deadly for the patients.

Evaluate advantage and disadvatage (to what extent the effect..)

The E-prescription system gives a huge advantage for both the patient and for the hospital. By doing this the patient can have their drugs quickly available in the pharmacies because the systems automatically sends the needed prescriptions to the pharmacy therefore making it less time consuming. For the hospital it also helps reduce paperwork by making it digital and also reduces errors that could be made by handwritig the prescriptions. Also prescription fraud can be reduced for the customer as the stakeholder.

The disadvantage of this system is that

 

Medical Expert Systems

How it works?

It is a tool that helps with medical decision making by using an expert system. This expert system is created by a knowledge engineer that takes medical data and creates a knowledge base and rules from it. When a patient’s symptoms is input to the system, the expert system will diagnose the patient.

Issues

Reliability and Integrity is a big problem. If the knowledge engineer made mistakes by creating errors in the knowledge base, the system may misdiagnose the patient and at the end the patient can have fatal consequences.

Evaluate advantage and disadvatage (to what extent the effect..)

Advantage would be that the system will automatically help diagnose the patient just by inputing the symptoms of the patient and the patient’s data. However a disadvantage would be that the knowledge base would not contain every information that is complete therefore it might not be able to diagnose the patient thoroughly.

 

Virtual Reality Therapy

How it works

Improving the treatment of post-traumatic disorder by utilizing virtual reality equipment. By using this equipment the patients can experience realism in a virtual environment.

Issues

An issue could possibly be the virtual reality worsen the situation instead of making it better

Advantages and Disadvantages:

Advantages

Could heal people/stakeholders and reduce the fears

Disadvantages

Could worsen the problem if treated improperly

 

Prosthetic Devices

How it works

-Robotic Limbs which offer the wearer much more control and mobility than traditional plastic prosthetics.

Issues

Reliability and Integrity: Malfunction of device can cause devastating effects to the user such as going out of control.

Advantages and Disadvantages:

Advantages

-To help people that lost their limbs

-To give a sense of comfort because there is a replacement for lost limbs

Disadvantages

-Costly

-Not widely available

-Reliability

-People and Machines

 

Robotic Surgery Tools

How it works?

These tools allow treatment to be targeted much more precisely than with traditional methods, increasing its effectiveness, reducing damage to healthy tissue, and if the cancer is close to vital organs, perhaps allowing therapy which would otherwise be impossible.

Issues

– Reliability

– People and machine

– Security

Advantage and Disadvantage

Advantage

  • More accurate
  • Increase effectiveness
  • Reduce damage to healthy tissue
  • Therapy
  • Quick recovery
  • Shorter hospital stays

Disadvantage

  • Post-surgery infections
  • Cost

 

Patient simulator

How it works

computerised systems which copy the functions of the human body.

Issues

reliability and integrity: there might be inaccuracy of the copy of the human body.

 

Advantage & Disadvantage

Enable doctors to see realistic responses to their actions in a safe environment with no risk with real patient.  This allows doctors skills to be assessed since the simulator automatically record factors such as action taken. Disadvantage is the result may not match in real life situation completely

 

Medical Advice

Using Mobile phones features like sms for health education

How it works?

– Raise awareness of of health issues

– Teach students through different forms (quiz, games, video)

Issues

–  Globalisation and Cultural Diversity issue:

– Reliability

– Equality of Access

  1. Evaluate advantages and disadvantages?

Advantage & Disadvantage

  • Large numbers of message to be sent
  • Low cost
  • Customizable messages
  • Different Language
  • Ideal, fun and able to reach a lot of people

 

Online Medical Advice

How it Works

Operated either by governments or individual clinics can treat from common illnesses to complicated types of illnesses.

 

Issues

Reliability and Integrity: Could be a fraud, can be a possibility giving false advices which could lead worser situations.

 

Authenticity: The person giving the advice could be a uncertified person

 

Privacy: The need to give detailed information about your problems can cause the user to be hacked or to be exposed.

 

Advantages and Disadvantages

 

Advantages

-Can be accessed at anytime and anywhere

-Quick Treatment

-Cheap

 

Disadvantages

-Privacy

-Reliability

-Authenticity

-People and machines

 

Medical Research – Disease Mapping

How it Works

An IT system utilizing a centralized database which allows cases of problems to be reported instantly to map disease outbreaks and gather up up-to the-minute data on cases.

Issues

Reliability and Integrity is an issue that might be faced because disease mapping relies on up-to-the-minute information.

Evaluate Advantage and Disadvantage

Advantage would be that if the system works as intended, up to date information can be used and therefore help the stakeholders make use of the system faster. Another advantage is that this system replaces paper based reporting that takes time and

 

Disadvantage would be that for rural areas where the diseases usually happens, it is expensive to install and therefore be costly for the areas.

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